你分的清Muscat、Muscadelle和Muscadet吗

文:王智慧 | 葡萄酒在线

Muscat

相信很多人看到这个单词时会脱口会出:麝香葡萄。但需要特别指出的是,Muscat指代的并不是一个单一品种,而是一个拥有数千年历史的包含200多个品种的麝香葡萄家族。这些品种通常具有浓郁独特的香气,如花香、杏子、荔枝、椴树、凤梨等等,酿出的酒也跟它的香气一样香浓讨喜,但可能缺乏一些细腻和均衡。它们需要温暖干燥的气候来发展成熟,经常用于酿造气泡或加强型葡萄酒。

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这个家族中比较出名的品种有Muscat à Petits Grains(小粒麝香),可用来酿造意大利Piemonte(皮埃蒙特)出产的甜蜜浓郁,拥有柑橘和花香气息的酒精度很低的气泡酒Asti。也可用来酿造南法地区的Vins Doux Naturel(天然甜葡萄酒)和澳大利亚的Rutherglen(路斯格兰)加强甜葡萄酒。经过陈年氧化过程的小粒麝香葡萄酒色会变的很深,并且发展出葡萄干、水果蛋糕、太妃糖的香气,麝香葡萄自身独特浓厚的香气始终存在其中。

Champagner einschenken

Champagner einschenken

另外一种比较常见的品种是Muscat of Alexandria(亚历山大-麝香),产量高,有充分的甜度和成熟度,但论品质和精致程度都比不上小粒麝香,所以既用于酿酒,也有很多地区栽种食用。法国Roussillon(鲁西荣)地区用它来制作甜白和天然甜酒,智利将其蒸馏制作烈酒Pisco。在意大利、澳大利亚、希腊和加州等地也有广泛种植。

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此外,Muscat Hamburg、Orange Muscat也都是常见的麝香品种。在全球各地的语言中有时你还会看到对Muscat不同的别称,但从长相上还是大致能判断出这是Muscat的变形,比如muskadel(南非)、moscato(意大利)、Muskateller(德国,常指小粒麝香)等等,并为它添加个前缀或后缀作为品种名称。

Muscadelle

从名字上看很挂亲戚相,香气里也有麝香葡萄的影子,但也仅仅是点影子,事实上Muscadelle(密司卡岱)虽然同样芳香强烈,可香气特征并不相同。它也确实不是麝香家族成员,连远亲都不是,是由白古娃(Gouais Blanc)和 另一种未知品种杂交而生。

Muscadelle 是法国波尔多地区排行在赛美容和长相思之后的第三位的白葡萄品种,在波尔多的干白和贵腐甜白葡萄酒中对香气和复杂度都有所贡献,但是所占比例不高,通常为3%-5%。

Italian antipasto on linen covered table.

Italian antipasto on linen covered table.

这里顺便提到葡萄酒里另一个很让人头疼的单词Tokay,它长的很像匈牙利甜酒Tokaji(托卡伊),其实是Alsace(阿尔萨斯)对灰皮诺的称呼。也正是为了避免这种混淆,从2006年,原标为Tokay Pinot Gris的阿尔萨斯灰皮诺被欧盟要求去掉Tokay,仅标注为Pinot Gris.

同时,它也是我们上文提到的澳大利亚Rutherglen(路斯格兰)地区很受欢迎的加强酒Liqueur Tokay的中心词,这种加强酒色深、浓郁、集中度高,它的酿造品种正是我们这里讲到的Muscadelle——而种植者过去错误的以为他们种的是用于酿造匈牙利托卡伊甜酒的葡萄品种而命名其为Tokay。Muscadelle的身份直到20世纪70年代中期才被确认,2007年起,Tokay被要求改为 Topaque,同样为避免混淆。但很多人还是习惯的称之为Tokay.

Toasting with champagne

Toasting with champagne

 

Muscadet

这个区分起来应该容易一些,它不是一种葡萄,而是一个地名。Muscadet位于法国卢瓦尔河东段南岸的Nantais(南特)区,地势低平缓和,土壤多样,临近大西洋,属于夏季温暖,冬季短暂温和的海洋性气候。你如果看到Muscadet côtes de Grandlieu和Muscadet Sèvre et Maine,这些都是它的子产区地名啦。

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这个地区出产的AC白葡萄酒就叫Muscadet AC,主要的葡萄品种是Melon Blanc(Melon de Bourgogne)白瓜品种。这中葡萄酒的酸度高,果香新鲜,口感清淡,略带矿石气息。据说是“法国最常用来搭配生蚝与海鲜的日常干白葡萄酒”。由于采取酒泥熟化技术(sur lie),酒体饱满但清新,带有些许的酵母风味。

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