JD.com: Mapping the landscape of online wine sales in China

By Maxime Lu / 陆江

Published on DecanterChina.COM, Chinese version of Decanter.

2 March 2016

In recent years, online retailers and their highly efficient delivery systems have largely changed people’s shopping habits in China. Such changes made online shopping one of the most important and fast-growing channels for Chinese consumers to purchase wine.

Read our exclusive interview with ZHAO Dabin, head of the wine department of Chinese online retail giant JD.com, to learn about the scale and current state of its rapidly growing wine business.

134951_jd-com-zhao-dabin-liu-qiangdong-twe-signing-croppedImage: ZHAO Dabin (right on the front) and LIU Qiangdong of JD.com signing agreement with Treasury Wine Estates

The scale of the business

As one of the biggest online retailers in China, JD.com launched its wine business at the end of 2010, ZHAO Dabin, head of JD.com’s wine department, told DecanterChina.com.

Wines sold on the site come from two sources, Zhao explained; JD.com works as an importer to buy wines from abroad and sell it directly, but it also serves as a ‘shopping mall’ for wine merchants to host their own shops.

The wine sales from both channels now account for a quarter of the retailer’s total annual sales of alcoholic beverages, which is expected to fetch CNY10.5bn (GBP1.1bn) in 2016.

‘Chinese white spirit (Baijiu),’ said Zhao, ‘still occupies the vast majority of the sales.’

In 2015, JD.com imported and sold CNY400m’s worth of wines itself, and the number is expected to triple in 2016. The sales through the merchants, on the other hand, are expected to hit CNY1.5bn, three times the amount of 2015, according to the retailer.

These estimates may still be ‘too conservative’, said Zhao, as JD.com has already sold 100m RMB’s worth of wine on its own from the start of 2016 to 20th January. ‘For January only, we have achieved four times the sales of last year.

Direct import vs merchants

Though JD’s direct wine import and sales business is growing rapidly, Zhao doesn’t believe that it would pose significant threat to merchants who sell their wines through JD.com.

‘Not all the wines are suitable to be sold by JD.com,’ explained Zhao.

For brands that are dealt by JD.com directly ‘they need to share a fixed amount of gross profit with us’, and their sales figures need to ‘keep up the pace’ of the fast-growing online retailer. JD.com would evaluate the performance of its own brands, and ‘eliminate’ the underperformers.

In fact, currently wine merchants take up a bigger chunk of the wine sales on JD.com, said Zhao. More and more merchants come organically or are invited by JD.com to build their own online stores. ‘The number of merchants defines the growths of the sales.’

The vast consumer base also suggests the size of the market. At the moment, wine consumers on JD.com are mainly office workers from Beijing, Shanghai and Guangdong, said Zhao. In late 2016, the retailer plans to reach out to villages and third and fourth tier cities.

‘Most of our wine consumers are still at entry level, though there are so many wine brands out there,’ said Zhao, pointing out that ‘only 3% to 4%’ among JD.com’s vast number of registered users buy wines at the moment. ‘There’re still plenty of room to grow.’


Image: Chinese consumers at 2015 Decanter Shanghai Fine Wine Encounter

Domestic wines vs Imported wines

In 2015, China has imported significantly more bottled wines compared to 2014. The Free Trade Agreement signed between China and Australia is believed to pose more challenges to China’s domestic wine producers in the next few years.

Currently domestic wines account for 30% of JD.com’s self-run wine business, whereas imported wines take up 70%. Zhao believes that other major online retailers, such as Tmall.com and Yhd.com, rely ‘even less’ on domestic wines.

Among the merchants on JD.com, 15% of the brands they sell are domestic, although the sales volume of domestic wines is ‘slightly more’ than that of imported wines, said Zhao.

Though the growths of imported wines are constantly put under the spotlight, in the third or even fourth tier cities in China, domestic wines still dominate the market. ‘Imported wines still can’t break into the smaller cities,’ said Zhao, ‘although in the first and second tier cities, the sales of imported wines are almost equal to that of domestic wines.’

Facing such challenge, domestic producers are seeking to expand their business.

The two biggest wine producers in China, Changyu and Great Wall, ‘are still among the top three best-selling brands on JD.com,’ said Zhao, adding that the two brands alone take up over 90% of the sales of domestic wines on the platform.

134953_jd-interview-decanter-2015-shanghai-fine-wine-encounter-reading-bookletImage: Chinese wine lovers at 2015 Decanter Shanghai Fine Wine Encounter

The most popular price ranges

The top countries for imported wines on JD.com are led by France and followed by Australia, Chile, Spain, Italy and America. The most popular price ranges on the online retailer, according to Zhao, are ‘under 50RMB’ and ‘50-100RMB’.

The ‘under 50RMB’ tier is dominated by Spanish table wines. Among wines priced 50-100RMB, consumers can find entry-level wines from the Domaines Baron de Rothschild (Lafite) and branded wines such as those from Penfolds Rawson’s Retreat, Yellow Tail and Casillero del Diablo of Concha y Toro.

The range of ‘100-200RMB’, however, showed the most significant growth among JD.com’s self-run brands, said Zhao.

‘We work as an importer and retailer at the same time, so we won’t add too high margins. This is a very popular price range in the general market as well.’

JD.com is also keen to develop its fine wine portfolio, namely those priced at 200 to 500 RMB. The sales during 2015 and the Spring Festival period in 2016 showed the potential of these wines.

‘None of the online retailers would satisfy on selling only the entry-level wines. We need to go upstream.’

The effect of the austerity policy

‘The austerity policies have brought no negative effect to JD.com what-so-ever; if anything, it was beneficial to us,’ said Zhao.

‘The anti-corruption drive mainly tackled the mid-to-higher range products. JD.com, on the contrary, is a retailer targeting the mass consumers.’

The bubbles of the mid-to-higher range have now burst, bringing the price back to the reasonable range. ‘More and more people were looking for value-for-money wines, which was great news for us,’ said Zhao. ‘While overall the industry struggled to grow, we managed to triple our wine sales from 2014 to 2015.’

Choosing the right supplier

Now five years in the wine business, JD.com believe its biggest challenge comes from the supply chain.

The suppliers can’t necessarily foresee the scale of the sales, thus may struggle to prepare enough stock for the fast-growing retailer, said Zhao.

Facing such challenges, in 2016 JD.com intend to re-evaluate its 1300 wine products by regions, and to focus its resources on fewer but better brands and suppliers. However, the adjustment should not interfere with the growth, Zhao said, ‘we should be able to keep growing at the rate of 300% to 400% (per year).’

About 2016

Speaking about China’s wine market in 2016, ‘I don’t expect an explosive growth,’ said Zhao.‘We still don’t have enough wine consumers in China, which is why we need to encourage more consumers to start drinking wine. Meanwhile, we need to further control the distribution costs, and provide down-to-earth prices to consumers.’Coming next month:JD.com: Controlling the authenticity and quality of wine products

Translated by Sylvia Wu / 吴嘉溦

Source:    https://www.decanterchina.com/en/knowledge/people/importers/jd-com-mapping-the-landscape-of-online-wine-sales-in-china-part-i

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作者: 陆江 (Maxime LU)





图片:京东集团葡萄酒部门负责人赵大彬(右下)与京东董事长及CEO刘强东(右上)与澳大利亚富邑集团(Treasury Wine Estates)签署合作协议。


京东开展葡萄酒业务始于2010年底。葡萄酒业务负责人赵大彬介绍说,京东的葡萄酒业务分两种模式:一个是自营模式,也就是从进口商或国外直接采购,加一部分利润卖出去;另一个是平台模式,即招一些商家开店,以他们自主经营为主,类似“购物中心(shopping mall)”。




















50元以下的葡萄酒以西班牙日常餐酒为主。50元到100元的价位可见拉菲罗斯柴尔德集团(DBR)旗下的部分产品、澳大利亚Penfolds洛神山庄(Penfolds Rawsons Retreat)、黄尾袋鼠(Yellow Tail)以及智利甘露集团的红魔鬼(Casillero del Diablo)等品牌。


200元到500元是京东在精品葡萄酒(Fine Wines)上重点发展的价位。赵大彬认为,2015年以及2016年春节的销售显示了这个价位的潜力。“所有电商不可能只卖入门级的低端产品,未来需求都要往上拓展。”














*点击 http://www.DecanterChina.com 查看原文,查询身边的优质葡萄酒,读遍名家专栏,学练WSET知识点,阅览海内外葡萄酒信息。DecanterChina.com是1975年创刊的国际葡萄酒权威媒体Decanter为日益成长的中国葡萄酒爱好者量身打造的中英文双语网站。


雅拉谷Yarra Valley – 国王谷King Valley – Rutherglen

图文:陆江(Maxime LU)

  5月27日疯狂的一天开始了,一早走访雅拉谷名庄De Bortoli(国内Torres代理),虽然在国内以甜酒著称,其实其它作品里也不乏佳品,尤其我个人喜欢这家酒庄在Heathcote产区的PHI GSM, 酒体和骨架有上佳的集成度和平衡。





这次行程安排相当紧,结果当天就上演了【奔跑吧,兄弟】-澳洲版的戏码,我和众多媒体兄弟姐妹们,上午参观完两家后,又去黑皮诺和夏多内不错的Innocent bystander(酿酒师在西澳牛庄Leeuwin工作过几年)参观品鉴。同时在这家酒庄的餐厅买了极简午餐:两个法棍三明治,我们就在车上啃着练牙的三明治,狂奔3个多小时前往墨尔本东北方向的最意大利的子产区King valley。雅拉谷的秋日街景只能在路口等车时,偷闲欣赏,电线杆子上依稀能看出雅拉谷激情的一面……


到达意大利血统的Pizzini酒庄,已是下午5点,我居然吃到了上好的应季柿子,也算是紧迫行程中的一丝慰藉。我被安排去做了我人生中的第一个苹果排,似乎还挺成功,苹果派装盘有点像烤乳猪块,于是居然还和大厨探讨了烤乳猪的技巧。说实话,这次行程的内容安排得不错,就是时间安排太过紧凑,可惜了这些好内容。烤完苹果派后,快速品完8款酒,还没来得及给酒瓶拍照,就被要求紧急行军半小时到Milawa的Linden Warrah酒店入住。


继续【奔跑吧,兄弟】晚间版,还有几家酒庄等待我们品鉴交流。离得近,我们从酒店步行去了品鉴地布朗兄弟(Brown Brother)酒庄,现场有三家酒庄:刚才的Pizzini酒庄,布朗兄弟酒庄(国内ASC代理,国内市场比较熟悉的品牌)和1999年种下澳洲第一株Prosecco的Dalz Otto,和酒庄代表们品鉴交流。现场还介绍了产区的相关知识,作为最意大利的维州产区,King Valley无论葡萄品种还是酒种都深受意大利影响。晚宴吃撑,估计是味如嚼蜡的午餐带来的食欲反弹。




从King Valley到Rutherglen大约需要1个多小时,Rutherglen是我喜欢的维州子产区,其实……因为加强酒是我个人的偏好。

上午Stanton & killeen wines有着八十年代和九十年代种植的来自于葡萄牙的葡萄藤,加强酒比较出彩。第二家是名厂Campbells,【学习帖:下面第二张图是标准的solera系统】,除加强酒实力强劲外,其实酒庄的白品种如雷司令和Roussanne,红品种如西拉、Durif(小西拉)等非加强酒也都有出挑的产品。


  Stanton & killeen wines



  中午在Pfeiffer酒庄,这家的雪莉style的酒,雷司令,Muscat加强酒等实力都不错。酒庄还拥有一片水域和桥梁,不少大黑牛,超赞度假地 。午餐吃了小袋鼠肉(如图),只是冷餐让我和数位小伙伴误会,没吃多少,在回墨尔本的3个多小时中饥肠辘辘,幸亏小黑带了能量棒。【冷餐……不要误会成头盘……后面没有主菜!!!】


最后一家Rutherglen的酒庄All Saints,历史悠久,还有当年酒庄建设时中国劳工的宿舍遗迹。我们走访时酒庄正好是最美季,让我费了不少相机存储空间。可以列入来澳洲自驾行的访问点。品鉴酒庄的酒,加强酒实力不弱,非加强的酒中西拉表现突出,白的Marsanne表现也不错。


我们的维州葡萄酒产区之行终于收官,晚上回到墨尔本,在Queen Victoria Market有维州政府安排的告别聚会,有音乐,有冷餐,还有来自不同地方的人们。我提早和几个小伙伴撤退了,逛逛超市,在墨尔本的大街溜达,再搭了段免费的市区内的珰珰车。美丽的夜景,老火车站,雅拉河,维州州立美术馆,再见了墨尔本。





陆江(Maxime LU)

– 国际国内葡萄酒大赛专家评委,独立酒评人,美食美酒旅游类撰稿人,葡萄酒行业咨询顾问,资深葡萄酒和烈酒收藏顾问,万欧兰葡萄酒教育首席讲师


王智慧(Serien WANG)

– 资深葡萄酒编辑、撰稿人和专业译者,《葡萄酒在线-WINEONLINE.CN》葡萄酒专题总监,万欧兰葡萄酒教育葡萄酒讲师



文:陆江(Maxime LU)

本文已发布于ProWine China网站专栏,转载请标明出处。







以黑皮诺(Pinot Noir)、梅洛(Merlot)、赤霞珠(Cabernet Sauvignon)、西拉(Syrah)、夏朵内(Chardonnay)、灰皮诺(Pinot Gris)、长相思(Sauvignon)等为代表的国际化品种;还有以Feteasca Neagra, Babeasca, Mustoasa de Maderat, Negru de Dragasani、Feteasca Regala, Feteasca Alba, Galbena de Odobesti, Zghihara de Husi、Tamaioasa Romaneasca, Busuioaca de Bohotin等为代表的本土品种。












而近年来,越来越多罗马尼亚葡萄酒生产商也看中中国市场的庞大和潜力,为了避免欧洲的单一市场风险,也开始积极到中国来参展推广。罗马尼亚葡萄酒协会(APEV ROMANIA)还投入预算,组团参加中国有影响力的葡萄酒展会。如今年(2015)11月在上海举办的ProWine China,就能看到他们的展会专区。





  陆江(Maxime LU)

  - 国际国内葡萄酒大赛专家评委,独立酒评人,美食美酒旅游类撰稿人,葡萄酒行业咨询顾问,资深葡萄酒和烈酒收藏顾问,万欧兰葡萄酒教育首席讲师


  王智慧(Serien WANG)

  - 资深葡萄酒编辑、撰稿人和专业译者,《葡萄酒在线-WINEONLINE.CN》葡萄酒专题总监,万欧兰葡萄酒教育葡萄酒讲师